Downloads backgroundDownloads background
Publications Search
Explore how scientists all over the world use DrugBank in their research.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Construction of Glycometabolism- and Hormone-Related lncRNA-Mediated Feedforward Loop Networks Reveals Global Patterns of lncRNAs and Drug Repurposing in Gestational Diabetes.

Authors: Fu X, Cong H, Zhao S, Li Y, Liu T, Sun Y, Lv N

Abstract: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition associated with the onset of abnormal glucose tolerance during pregnancy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), and genes can form lncRNA-mediated feedforward loops (lnc-FFLs), which are functional network motifs that regulate a wide range of biological processes and diseases. However, lnc-FFL network motifs have not been systematically investigated in GDM, and their role in the disease remains largely unknown. In the present study, a global lnc-FFL network was constructed and analyzed. Glycometabolism- and hormone-related lnc-FFL networks were extracted from the global network. An integrated algorithm was designed to identify dysregulated glycometabolism- and hormone-related lnc-FFLs in GDM. The patterns of dysregulated lnc-FFLs in GDM were complex. Moreover, there were strong associations between dysregulated glycometabolism- and hormone-related lnc-FFLs in GDM. Core modules were extracted from the dysregulated lnc-FFL networks in GDM and showed specific and essential functions. In addition, dysregulated lnc-FFLs could combine with ceRNAs and form more complex modules, which could play novel roles in GDM. Notably, we discovered that the dysregulated lnc-FFLs were enriched in the thyroid hormone signaling pathway. Some drug-repurposing candidates, such as hormonal drugs, could be identified based on lnc-FFLs in GDM. In summary, the present study highlighted the effect of dysregulated glycometabolism- and hormone-related lnc-FFLs in GDM and revealed their potential for the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GDM.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Prediction of Side Effects Using Comprehensive Similarity Measures.

Authors: Seo S, Lee T, Kim MH, Yoon Y

Abstract: Identifying the potential side effects of drugs is crucial in clinical trials in the pharmaceutical industry. The existing side effect prediction methods mainly focus on the chemical and biological properties of drugs. This study proposes a method that uses diverse information such as drug-drug interactions from DrugBank, drug-drug interactions from network, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and side effect anatomical hierarchy as well as chemical structures, indications, and targets. The proposed method is based on the assumption that properties used in drug repositioning studies could be utilized to predict side effects because the phenotypic expression of a side effect is similar to that of the disease. The prediction results using the proposed method showed a 3.5% improvement in the area under the curve (AUC) over that obtained when only chemical, indication, and target features were used. The random forest model delivered outstanding results for all combinations of feature types. Finally, after identifying candidate side effects of drugs using the proposed method, the following four popular drugs were discussed: (1) dasatinib, (2) sitagliptin, (3) vorinostat, and (4) clonidine.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Automated recognition of functional compound-protein relationships in literature.

Authors: Doring K, Qaseem A, Becer M, Li J, Mishra P, Gao M, Kirchner P, Sauter F, Telukunta KK, Moumbock AFA, Thomas P, Gunther S

Abstract: MOTIVATION: Much effort has been invested in the identification of protein-protein interactions using text mining and machine learning methods. The extraction of functional relationships between chemical compounds and proteins from literature has received much less attention, and no ready-to-use open-source software is so far available for this task. METHOD: We created a new benchmark dataset of 2,613 sentences from abstracts containing annotations of proteins, small molecules, and their relationships. Two kernel methods were applied to classify these relationships as functional or non-functional, named shallow linguistic and all-paths graph kernel. Furthermore, the benefit of interaction verbs in sentences was evaluated. RESULTS: The cross-validation of the all-paths graph kernel (AUC value: 84.6%, F1 score: 79.0%) shows slightly better results than the shallow linguistic kernel (AUC value: 82.5%, F1 score: 77.2%) on our benchmark dataset. Both models achieve state-of-the-art performance in the research area of relation extraction. Furthermore, the combination of shallow linguistic and all-paths graph kernel could further increase the overall performance slightly. We used each of the two kernels to identify functional relationships in all PubMed abstracts (29 million) and provide the results, including recorded processing time. AVAILABILITY: The software for the tested kernels, the benchmark, the processed 29 million PubMed abstracts, all evaluation scripts, as well as the scripts for processing the complete PubMed database are freely available at https://github.com/KerstenDoering/CPI-Pipeline.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

PHARMIP: An insilico method to predict genetics that underpin adverse drug reactions.

Authors: Zidan AM, Saad EA, Ibrahim NE, Mahmoud A, Hashem MH, Hemeida AA

Abstract: Pharmacovigilance is the pharmacological science that focuses on the safe and appropriate use of drugs.Variability in response to drug therapy in both terms of safety and efficacy is highly related to patient's personal genomics. Hence, pharmacovigilance considers pharmacogenomics methodologies in the evaluation of medicinal products. The aim of this work is to introduce the pharmacovigilance/ pharmacogenomics insilico pipeline (PHARMIP) that uses the drug (or drug candidate) digital structure and the advances in bioinformatics tools and databases to figure-out the genetic factors underlying the drug reported adverse reactions (ADRs).PHARMIP uses user-friendly freely available bioinformatics resources to help pharmacovigilance and pharmacogenomics scientists with minimal bioinformatics experience to retrieve helpful information for their daily basis activities. Also, PHARMIP could help the advances in precision medicine in a drug-centric approach as it can be used to reveal genetic risk factors for certain drug ADRs. Domperidone was used as an example to the application of PHARMIP as the pipeline was initially developed during the insilico exploration of domperidone cardiotoxic ADRs. Method is composed of 3 main steps: *Preparing the drug off-label targets (OLT) list.*Retrieving the related diseases/ adverse reactions (DA) list.*Analysis of DA list to get answers.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

In-silico simulated prototype-patients using TPMS technology to study a potential adverse effect of sacubitril and valsartan.

Authors: Jorba G, Aguirre-Plans J, Junet V, Segu-Verges C, Ruiz JL, Pujol A, Fernandez-Fuentes N, Mas JM, Oliva B

Abstract: Unveiling the mechanism of action of a drug is key to understand the benefits and adverse reactions of a medication in an organism. However, in complex diseases such as heart diseases there is not a unique mechanism of action but a wide range of different responses depending on the patient. Exploring this collection of mechanisms is one of the clues for a future personalized medicine. The Therapeutic Performance Mapping System (TPMS) is a Systems Biology approach that generates multiple models of the mechanism of action of a drug. Each molecular mechanism generated could be associated to particular individuals, here defined as prototype-patients, hence the generation of models using TPMS technology may be used for detecting adverse effects to specific patients. TPMS operates by (1) modelling the responses in humans with an accurate description of a protein network and (2) applying a Multilayer Perceptron-like and sampling strategy to find all plausible solutions. In the present study, TPMS is applied to explore the diversity of mechanisms of action of the drug combination sacubitril/valsartan. We use TPMS to generate a wide range of models explaining the relationship between sacubitril/valsartan and heart failure (the indication), as well as evaluating their association with macular degeneration (a potential adverse effect). Among the models generated, we identify a set of mechanisms of action associated to a better response in terms of heart failure treatment, which could also be associated to macular degeneration development. Finally, a set of 30 potential biomarkers are proposed to identify mechanisms (or prototype-patients) more prone of suffering macular degeneration when presenting good heart failure response. All prototype-patients models generated are completely theoretical and therefore they do not necessarily involve clinical effects in real patients. Data and accession to software are available at http://sbi.upf.edu/data/tpms/.
Published in December 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Zein nanoparticles as nontoxic delivery system for maytansine in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

Authors: Yu X, Wu H, Hu H, Dong Z, Dang Y, Qi Q, Wang Y, Du S, Lu Y

Abstract: Purpose: Maytansine (DM1) is a potent anticancer drug and limited in clinical application due to its poor water solubility and toxic side effects. Zein is widely used in nano drug delivery systems due to its good biocompatibility. In this study, we prepared DM1-loaded zein nanoparticles (ZNPs) to achieve tumor targeting and reduce toxic side effects of DM1. Methods: ZNPs were prepared by phase separation and Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the formulation. Then, confocal fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to determine cellular uptake of ZNPs. A549 cells were cultured in vitro to study cytotoxicity and used to establish tumor xenografts in nude mice. Biodistribution and antitumor activity of ZNPs were performed in vivo experiments. In addition, we also performed histological and immunohistochemical examinations on tumors and viscera. Results: The optimal prescription was obtained by using 120 muL zein added to 2 mL water under stirring in 300 rpm. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading were 82.97 +/- 0.80% and 3.32 +/- 0.03%, respectively. We found that DM1-loaded ZNPs have a strong inhibitory effect on A549 cells, which stemmed from the ability of ZNPs to enhance cellular uptake. Furthermore, we demonstrated that DM1-loaded ZNPs exhibits a better antitumor efficacy than DM1, which tumor inhibition rate were 97.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The biodistribution revealed that ZNPs could targeted to tumor. Finally, we confirmed by histological that DM1-loaded ZNPs are nontoxic. Conclusion: DM1-loaded ZNPs have considerable antitumor activity. Thus, DM1-loaded ZNPs are a promising treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Network Pharmacology Study on the Pharmacological Mechanism of Cinobufotalin Injection against Lung Cancer.

Authors: Mao Y, Peng X, Xue P, Lu D, Li L, Zhu S

Abstract: Cinobufotalin injection, extracted from the skin of Chinese giant salamander or black sable, has good clinical effect against lung cancer. However, owing to its complex composition, the pharmacological mechanism of cinobufotalin injection has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of action of cinobufotalin injection against lung cancer using network pharmacology and bioinformatics. Compounds of cinobufotalin injection were determined by literature retrieval, and potential therapeutic targets of cinobufotalin injection were screened from Swiss Target Prediction and STITCH databases. Lung-cancer-related genes were summarized from GeneCards, OMIM, and DrugBank databases. The pharmacological mechanism of cinobufotalin injection against lung cancer was determined by enrichment analysis of gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and protein-protein interaction network was constructed. We identified 23 compounds and 506 potential therapeutic targets of cinobufotalin injection, as well as 70 genes as potential therapeutic targets of cinobufotalin injection in lung cancer by molecular docking. The antilung cancer effect of cinobufotalin injection was shown to involve cell cycle, cell proliferation, antiangiogenesis effect, and immune inflammation pathways, such as PI3K-Akt, VEGF, and the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. In network analysis, the hub targets of cinobufotalin injection against lung cancer were identified as VEGFA, EGFR, CCND1, CASP3, and AKT1. A network diagram of "drug-compounds-target-pathway" was constructed through network pharmacology to elucidate the pharmacological mechanism of the antilung cancer effect of cinobufotalin injection, which is conducive to guiding clinical medication.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Drug-target interaction prediction using Multi Graph Regularized Nuclear Norm Minimization.

Authors: Mongia A, Majumdar A

Abstract: The identification of potential interactions between drugs and target proteins is crucial in pharmaceutical sciences. The experimental validation of interactions in genomic drug discovery is laborious and expensive; hence, there is a need for efficient and accurate in-silico techniques which can predict potential drug-target interactions to narrow down the search space for experimental verification. In this work, we propose a new framework, namely, Multi-Graph Regularized Nuclear Norm Minimization, which predicts the interactions between drugs and target proteins from three inputs: known drug-target interaction network, similarities over drugs and those over targets. The proposed method focuses on finding a low-rank interaction matrix that is structured by the proximities of drugs and targets encoded by graphs. Previous works on Drug Target Interaction (DTI) prediction have shown that incorporating drug and target similarities helps in learning the data manifold better by preserving the local geometries of the original data. But, there is no clear consensus on which kind and what combination of similarities would best assist the prediction task. Hence, we propose to use various multiple drug-drug similarities and target-target similarities as multiple graph Laplacian (over drugs/targets) regularization terms to capture the proximities exhaustively. Extensive cross-validation experiments on four benchmark datasets using standard evaluation metrics (AUPR and AUC) show that the proposed algorithm improves the predictive performance and outperforms recent state-of-the-art computational methods by a large margin. Software is publicly available at https://github.com/aanchalMongia/MGRNNMforDTI.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

Modified linear regression predicts drug-target interactions accurately.

Authors: Buza K, Peska L, Koller J

Abstract: State-of-the-art approaches for the prediction of drug-target interactions (DTI) are based on various techniques, such as matrix factorisation, restricted Boltzmann machines, network-based inference and bipartite local models (BLM). In this paper, we propose the framework of Asymmetric Loss Models (ALM) which is more consistent with the underlying chemical reality compared with conventional regression techniques. Furthermore, we propose to use an asymmetric loss model with BLM to predict drug-target interactions accurately. We evaluate our approach on publicly available real-world drug-target interaction datasets. The results show that our approach outperforms state-of-the-art DTI techniques, including recent versions of BLM.
Published in 2020
READ PUBLICATION →

A Definition of "Multitargeticity": Identifying Potential Multitarget and Selective Ligands Through a Vector Analysis.

Authors: Sanchez-Tejeda JF, Sanchez-Ruiz JF, Salazar JR, Loza-Mejia MA

Abstract: The design of multitarget drugs is an essential area of research in Medicinal Chemistry since they have been proposed as potential therapeutics for the management of complex diseases. However, defining a multitarget drug is not an easy task. In this work, we propose a vector analysis for measuring and defining "multitargeticity." We developed terms, such as order and force of a ligand, to finally reach two parameters: multitarget indexes 1 and 2. The combination of these two indexes allows discrimination of multitarget drugs. Several training sets were constructed to test the usefulness of the indexes: an experimental training set, with real affinities, a docking training set, within theoretical values, and an extensive database training set. The indexes proved to be useful, as they were used independently in silico and experimental data, identifying actual multitarget compounds and even selective ligands in most of the training sets. We then applied these indexes to evaluate a virtual library of potential ligands for targets related to multiple sclerosis, identifying 10 compounds that are likely leads for the development of multitarget drugs based on their in silico behavior. With this work, a new milestone is made in the way of defining multitargeticity and in drug design.