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Published in 2020
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Systematic Elucidation of the Potential Mechanism of Erzhi Pill against Drug-Induced Liver Injury via Network Pharmacology Approach.

Authors: Huang SJ, Mu F, Li F, Wang WJ, Zhang W, Lei L, Ma Y, Wang JW

Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this work was to investigate the bioactive compounds, core genes, and pharmacological mechanisms and to provide a further research orientation of Erzhi pill (EZP) on drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Methods: At first, we collected information of bioactive compounds of EZP from Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) and previous studies. And then, the targets related to bioactive compounds and DILI were obtained from 4 public databases. At last, Cytoscape was used to establish a visual network. Moreover, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses and network analysis were performed to investigate potential mechanism of EZP against DILI. Results: A total of 23 bioactive compounds and 89 major proteins of EZP were screened out as potential players against DILI. Association for bioactive compounds, core targets, and related pathways was analyzed, implying that core targets related to these pathways are ALB, AKT1, MAPK1, EGFR, SRC, MAPK8, IGF1, CASP3, HSP90AA1, and MMP9, and potential mechanisms of EZP acting on DILI are closely related to negative regulation of apoptosis process, improvement of lipid metabolism, and positive regulation of liver regeneration process. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the multicompound, multitarget, and multichannel characteristics of EZP, which provided a novel approach for further research the mechanism of EZP in the treatment of DILI.
Published in December 2020
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Mechanisms of increased bioavailability through amorphous solid dispersions: a review.

Authors: Schittny A, Huwyler J, Puchkov M

Abstract: Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) can increase the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. However, their use in drug development is comparably rare due to a lack of basic understanding of mechanisms governing drug liberation and absorption in vivo. Furthermore, the lack of a unified nomenclature hampers the interpretation and classification of research data. In this review, we therefore summarize and conceptualize mechanisms covering the dissolution of ASDs, formation of supersaturated ASD solutions, factors responsible for solution stabilization, drug uptake from ASD solutions, and drug distribution within these complex systems as well as effects of excipients. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of these findings on the development of ASDs. This improved overall understanding of these mechanisms will facilitate a rational ASD formulation development and will serve as a basis for further mechanistic research on drug delivery by ASDs.
Published in 2020
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PGxMine: Text mining for curation of PharmGKB.

Authors: Lever J, Barbarino JM, Gong L, Huddart R, Sangkuhl K, Whaley R, Whirl-Carrillo M, Woon M, Klein TE, Altman RB

Abstract: Precision medicine tailors treatment to individuals personal data including differences in their genome. The Pharmacogenomics Knowledgebase (PharmGKB) provides highly curated information on the effect of genetic variation on drug response and side effects for a wide range of drugs. PharmGKB's scientific curators triage, review and annotate a large number of papers each year but the task is challenging. We present the PGxMine resource, a text-mined resource of pharmacogenomic associations from all accessible published literature to assist in the curation of PharmGKB. We developed a supervised machine learning pipeline to extract associations between a variant (DNA and protein changes, star alleles and dbSNP identifiers) and a chemical. PGxMine covers 452 chemicals and 2,426 variants and contains 19,930 mentions of pharmacogenomic associations across 7,170 papers. An evaluation by PharmGKB curators found that 57 of the top 100 associations not found in PharmGKB led to 83 curatable papers and a further 24 associations would likely lead to curatable papers through citations. The results can be viewed at https://pgxmine.pharmgkb.org/ and code can be downloaded at https://github.com/jakelever/pgxmine.
Published in May 2020
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Predicting octanol/water partition coefficients for the SAMPL6 challenge using the SM12, SM8, and SMD solvation models.

Authors: Ouimet JA, Paluch AS

Abstract: Blind predictions of octanol/water partition coefficients at 298 K for 11 kinase inhibitor fragment like compounds were made for the SAMPL6 challenge. We used the conventional, "untrained", free energy based approach wherein the octanol/water partition coefficient was computed directly as the difference in solvation free energy in water and 1-octanol. We additionally proposed and used two different forms of a "trained" approach. Physically, the goal of the trained approach is to relate the partition coefficient computed using pure 1-octanol to that using water-saturated 1-octanol. In the first case, we assumed the partition coefficient using water-saturated 1-octanol and pure 1-octanol are linearly correlated. In the second approach, we assume the solvation free energy in water-saturated 1-octanol can be written as a linear combination of the solvation free energy in pure water and 1-octanol. In all cases here, the solvation free energies were computed using electronic structure calculations in the SM12, SM8, and SMD universal solvent models. In the context of the present study, our results in general do not support the additional effort of the trained approach.
Published in April 2020
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Assessing the accuracy of octanol-water partition coefficient predictions in the SAMPL6 Part II log P Challenge.

Authors: Isik M, Bergazin TD, Fox T, Rizzi A, Chodera JD, Mobley DL

Abstract: The SAMPL Challenges aim to focus the biomolecular and physical modeling community on issues that limit the accuracy of predictive modeling of protein-ligand binding for rational drug design. In the SAMPL5 log D Challenge, designed to benchmark the accuracy of methods for predicting drug-like small molecule transfer free energies from aqueous to nonpolar phases, participants found it difficult to make accurate predictions due to the complexity of protonation state issues. In the SAMPL6 log P Challenge, we asked participants to make blind predictions of the octanol-water partition coefficients of neutral species of 11 compounds and assessed how well these methods performed absent the complication of protonation state effects. This challenge builds on the SAMPL6 p[Formula: see text] Challenge, which asked participants to predict p[Formula: see text] values of a superset of the compounds considered in this log P challenge. Blind prediction sets of 91 prediction methods were collected from 27 research groups, spanning a variety of quantum mechanics (QM) or molecular mechanics (MM)-based physical methods, knowledge-based empirical methods, and mixed approaches. There was a 50% increase in the number of participating groups and a 20% increase in the number of submissions compared to the SAMPL5 log D Challenge. Overall, the accuracy of octanol-water log P predictions in SAMPL6 Challenge was higher than cyclohexane-water log D predictions in SAMPL5, likely because modeling only the neutral species was necessary for log P and several categories of method benefited from the vast amounts of experimental octanol-water log P data. There were many highly accurate methods: 10 diverse methods achieved RMSE less than 0.5 log P units. These included QM-based methods, empirical methods, and mixed methods with physical modeling supported with empirical corrections. A comparison of physical modeling methods showed that QM-based methods outperformed MM-based methods. The average RMSE of the most accurate five MM-based, QM-based, empirical, and mixed approach methods based on RMSE were 0.92 +/- 0.13, 0.48 +/- 0.06, 0.47 +/- 0.05, and 0.50 +/- 0.06, respectively.
Published in April 2020
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Octanol-water partition coefficient measurements for the SAMPL6 blind prediction challenge.

Authors: Isik M, Levorse D, Mobley DL, Rhodes T, Chodera JD

Abstract: Partition coefficients describe the equilibrium partitioning of a single, defined charge state of a solute between two liquid phases in contact, typically a neutral solute. Octanol-water partition coefficients ([Formula: see text]), or their logarithms (log P), are frequently used as a measure of lipophilicity in drug discovery. The partition coefficient is a physicochemical property that captures the thermodynamics of relative solvation between aqueous and nonpolar phases, and therefore provides an excellent test for physics-based computational models that predict properties of pharmaceutical relevance such as protein-ligand binding affinities or hydration/solvation free energies. The SAMPL6 Part II octanol-water partition coefficient prediction challenge used a subset of kinase inhibitor fragment-like compounds from the SAMPL6 [Formula: see text] prediction challenge in a blind experimental benchmark. Following experimental data collection, the partition coefficient dataset was kept blinded until all predictions were collected from participating computational chemistry groups. A total of 91 submissions were received from 27 participating research groups. This paper presents the octanol-water log P dataset for this SAMPL6 Part II partition coefficient challenge, which consisted of 11 compounds (six 4-aminoquinazolines, two benzimidazole, one pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine, one pyridine, one 2-oxoquinoline substructure containing compounds) with log P values in the range of 1.95-4.09. We describe the potentiometric log P measurement protocol used to collect this dataset using a Sirius T3, discuss the limitations of this experimental approach, and share suggestions for future log P data collection efforts for the evaluation of computational methods.
Published on April 23, 2020
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Dual graph convolutional neural network for predicting chemical networks.

Authors: Harada S, Akita H, Tsubaki M, Baba Y, Takigawa I, Yamanishi Y, Kashima H

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Predicting of chemical compounds is one of the fundamental tasks in bioinformatics and chemoinformatics, because it contributes to various applications in metabolic engineering and drug discovery. The recent rapid growth of the amount of available data has enabled applications of computational approaches such as statistical modeling and machine learning method. Both a set of chemical interactions and chemical compound structures are represented as graphs, and various graph-based approaches including graph convolutional neural networks have been successfully applied to chemical network prediction. However, there was no efficient method that can consider the two different types of graphs in an end-to-end manner. RESULTS: We give a new formulation of the chemical network prediction problem as a link prediction problem in a graph of graphs (GoG) which can represent the hierarchical structure consisting of compound graphs and an inter-compound graph. We propose a new graph convolutional neural network architecture called dual graph convolutional network that learns compound representations from both the compound graphs and the inter-compound network in an end-to-end manner. CONCLUSIONS: Experiments using four chemical networks with different sparsity levels and degree distributions shows that our dual graph convolution approach achieves high prediction performance in relatively dense networks, while the performance becomes inferior on extremely-sparse networks.
Published on April 22, 2020
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A comparative chemogenic analysis for predicting Drug-Target Pair via Machine Learning Approaches.

Authors: Kaushik AC, Mehmood A, Dai X, Wei DQ

Abstract: A computational technique for predicting the DTIs has now turned out to be an indispensable job during the process of drug finding. It tapers the exploration room for interactions by propounding possible interaction contenders for authentication through experiments of wet-lab which are known for their expensiveness and time consumption. Chemogenomics, an emerging research area focused on the systematic examination of the biological impact of a broad series of minute molecular-weighting ligands on a broad raiment of macromolecular target spots. Additionally, with the advancement in time, the complexity of the algorithms is increasing which may result in the entry of big data technologies like Spark in this field soon. In the presented work, we intend to offer an inclusive idea and realistic evaluation of the computational Drug Target Interaction projection approaches, to perform as a guide and reference for researchers who are carrying out work in a similar direction. Precisely, we first explain the data utilized in computational Drug Target Interaction prediction attempts like this. We then sort and explain the best and most modern techniques for the prediction of DTIs. Then, a realistic assessment is executed to show the projection performance of several illustrative approaches in various situations. Ultimately, we underline possible opportunities for additional improvement of Drug Target Interaction projection enactment and also linked study objectives.
Published on April 20, 2020
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Predicting miRNA-disease association from heterogeneous information network with GraRep embedding model.

Authors: Ji BY, You ZH, Cheng L, Zhou JR, Alghazzawi D, Li LP

Abstract: In recent years, accumulating evidences have shown that microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in the exploration and treatment of diseases, so detection of the associations between miRNA and disease has been drawn more and more attentions. However, traditional experimental methods have the limitations of high cost and time- consuming, a computational method can help us more systematically and effectively predict the potential miRNA-disease associations. In this work, we proposed a novel network embedding-based heterogeneous information integration method to predict miRNA-disease associations. More specifically, a heterogeneous information network is constructed by combining the known associations among lncRNA, drug, protein, disease, and miRNA. After that, the network embedding method Learning Graph Representations with Global Structural Information (GraRep) is employed to learn embeddings of nodes in heterogeneous information network. In this way, the embedding representations of miRNA and disease are integrated with the attribute information of miRNA and disease (e.g. miRNA sequence information and disease semantic similarity) to represent miRNA-disease association pairs. Finally, the Random Forest (RF) classifier is used for predicting potential miRNA-disease associations. Under the 5-fold cross validation, our method obtained 85.11% prediction accuracy with 80.41% sensitivity at the AUC of 91.25%. In addition, in case studies of three major Human diseases, 45 (Colon Neoplasms), 42 (Breast Neoplasms) and 44 (Esophageal Neoplasms) of top-50 predicted miRNAs are respectively verified by other miRNA-disease association databases. In conclusion, the experimental results suggest that our method can be a powerful and useful tool for predicting potential miRNA-disease associations.
Published on April 20, 2020
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Identifying GPCR-drug interaction based on wordbook learning from sequences.

Authors: Wang P, Huang X, Qiu W, Xiao X

Abstract: BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate a variety of important physiological functions, are closely related to many diseases, and constitute the most important target family of modern drugs. Therefore, the research of GPCR analysis and GPCR ligand screening is the hotspot of new drug development. Accurately identifying the GPCR-drug interaction is one of the key steps for designing GPCR-targeted drugs. However, it is prohibitively expensive to experimentally ascertain the interaction of GPCR-drug pairs on a large scale. Therefore, it is of great significance to predict the interaction of GPCR-drug pairs directly from the molecular sequences. With the accumulation of known GPCR-drug interaction data, it is feasible to develop sequence-based machine learning models for query GPCR-drug pairs. RESULTS: In this paper, a new sequence-based method is proposed to identify GPCR-drug interactions. For GPCRs, we use a novel bag-of-words (BoW) model to extract sequence features, which can extract more pattern information from low-order to high-order and limit the feature space dimension. For drug molecules, we use discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to extract higher-order pattern information from the original molecular fingerprints. The feature vectors of two kinds of molecules are concatenated and input into a simple prediction engine distance-weighted K-nearest-neighbor (DWKNN). This basic method is easy to be enhanced through ensemble learning. Through testing on recently constructed GPCR-drug interaction datasets, it is found that the proposed methods are better than the existing sequence-based machine learning methods in generalization ability, even an unconventional method in which the prediction performance was further improved by post-processing procedure (PPP). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed methods are effective for GPCR-drug interaction prediction, and may also be potential methods for other target-drug interaction prediction, or protein-protein interaction prediction. In addition, the new proposed feature extraction method for GPCR sequences is the modified version of the traditional BoW model and may be useful to solve problems of protein classification or attribute prediction. The source code of the proposed methods is freely available for academic research at https://github.com/wp3751/GPCR-Drug-Interaction.